Since 1973, the original Black and Scholes Option Pricing Model has been the subject of much attention. Many financial scholars have expanded upon the original work. In 1973, Robert Merton relaxed the assumption of no dividends. In 1976, Jonathan Ingerson went one step further and relaxed the the assumption of no taxes or transaction costs. In 1976, Merton responded by removing the restriction of constant interest rates. The results of all of this attention, that originated in the autumn of 1969, are alarmingly accurate valuation models for stock options.